The evolution of stem-bird vocalization

I wrote this essay for a course on evolution last year. I've made a few edits and reproduced it here. Most tetrapods capable of vocalization, such as mammals, utilize vocal cords located within the larynx for this purpose (Senter, 2008). Birds, however, utilize an organ located at the base of the trachea: the syrinx. Unlike … Continue reading The evolution of stem-bird vocalization

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